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Entebbe Summit for Peace and Prosperity: Joint Declaration of Principles



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Joint Declaration of Principles



The Entebbe Summit of Heads of State and Government

At the joint invitation of H.E. President Yoweri Kaguta Museveni of the Republic of Uganda and H.E. President William Jefferson Clinton of the United States of America, their excellencies Mr. Daniel T. arap Moi, President of the Republic of Kenya, Mr. Pasteur Bizimungu, President of the Republic of Rwanda, Mr. Benjamin William Mkapa, President of the United Republic of Tanzania, Mr. laurent Desire Kabile, President of the Democratic Republic of Congo, Mr. Meles Zenawi, Prime Minister of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, and Mr. Salim Ahmed Salim, Secretary-General of the Organization of African Unity, met on Wednesday 25 March, 1998 at Entebbe, Uganda.

The exchange of views between the African leaders and the President of the United States marks a new beginning, launching a process of defining and building a U.S.- Africa partnership for the 21st Century. The Heads of State and Government reaffirm the historical bonds between the people of America and Africa. We pledge to deepen these ties through a lasting partnership rooted in common values and recognition of our interdependence, and built upon mutual respect and the sovereign equality of nations. The Leaders commit themselves to honor and execute agreements mutually concluded by all the parties to rigorously pursue Africa’s economic growth and transformation, and full integration into the global economy.


Putting Partnership into Practice:

The Heads of State and Government recognize that to effect this new, genuine and transparent partnership, there is a need to commit ourselves to the identification and acknowledgement of both our mutual and divergent interests, the pursuit of free and frank discussions, and a clear understanding of the roles and responsibilities of each partner.


A Partnership Built on Principle and a Shared Vision:

The Heads of State and Government recognize that a lasting partnership must be built on the principles of shared ownership, joint responsibility, and full transparency.

The Heads of State and Government further acknowledge a shared vital interest in long-term meaningful engagement. We affirm that Africa and the United States hold a mutual interest: in fostering Africa’s economic and political transformation and full integration into the global economy, and in promoting democratic participation and respect for human rights. We affirm that social, economic and political inclusion is the foundation for lasting peace and stability. The Leaders declare that African and American security interests alike will be advanced by a joint attack on the transnational problems of terrorism, disease, proliferation of weapons, drug trafficking and environmental degradation.


On Building a New Economic Future:

Recognizing that Africa’s stability, and democracy’s viability, are rooted in the alleviation of poverty and the achievement of sustainable economic development, the Heads of State and Government commit themselves to a series of measures designed to speed Africa’s transformation and full integration into the global economy, and to expand mutually beneficial trade and investment opportunities:

The Leaders commit themselves to fostering an expanded African and international dialogue, aimed at defining strategies to facilitate Africa’s global integration that are as flexible and creative as those applied to post-war Europe and Asia;

The Heads of State and Government reaffirm the importance of Inter-Governmental Authority on Development and East African Cooperation initiatives to facilitate regional economic integration and create a larger regional market, and commit themselves to identifying ways and means to accelerate these and other efforts;

Endorsing the conclusions of the World Bank Summit convened in Kampala in January 1998, the Leaders agree to target their own efforts in four critical areas, and to encourage the multilateral institutions to also fully support:

the development of a sustained international dialogue, based on mutual respect, on how to ensure that mandated economic reform programs reflect the specific circumstances of individual countries;

the expansion of external resource flows, directed, in particular, at human resource development, infrastructure, rural development and research;

increased investment in the physical infrastructure required to sustain regional trade and integration;

building African capacity to lead the economic reform process through transparent and accountable political and economic institutions.

The United States affirms the priority it attaches to speedy implementation of President Clinton’s Partnership for Economic Growth and the enactment of the African Growth and Opportunity Act, legislation that will permit broader market access for African goods;

The Heads of State and Government affirm the African Growth and Opportunity Act as a major step forward in U.S.- African economic relations, but acknowledge that this effort to provide greater market access for African goods must be complemented by efforts to increase African capacity to diversify economies and produce exportable goods;

The Heads of State and Government pledge to work together to explore ways and means of ensuring that this Act, and other measures including but not limited to initiatives of the multilateral financial institutions, reflect and build upon the diversity, in both circumstances and approach, of Africa’s national economies;

The Heads of State and Government also emphasize the critical need to further strengthen, in particular, agricultural production and processing, including through the transfer of technologies;

The Heads of State and Government welcome the decision of the U.S. Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC), to target $500 million for infrastructure investment in Sub-Saharan African.

In the interest of further expanding U.S. private investment in the region and across Africa, the Heads of State and Government are committed to undertaking concrete measures aimed at promoting African investment opportunities, and to building African capacity to further enhance the economic policy environment;

In recognition of the African desire for increased self-sufficiency and the dangers of aid dependency, the Heads of State and Government agree that an accelerated effort should be made to use foreign assistance as a tool for the enhancement of trade, investment and capital formation, as well as for sustainable economic development;

The Heads of State and Government recognize the continuing obstacle that the debt burden poses to Africa’s economic transformation, and reaffirm their collective determination to fully implement innovative approaches to the management and lessening of the debt burden;

The Heads of State and Government commend ongoing African efforts, as well as those of Africa’s partners, to increase transparency, fight corruption, and support better business practices, and welcome regional and continental efforts to further these aims.


On Condemnation of Acts of Genocide

The Heads of State and Government recognize the accomplishment of the Government of Rwanda in halting the 1994 genocide, condemn all acts of genocide and pledge to undertake a concerted effort to prevent its resurgence. To this end:

All Heads of State and Government condemn the continued atrocities of the ex-FAR, the Interahamwe and their allies, pledge to work together to prohibit future atrocities in the Great Lakes region, including those aided and abetted by external arms suppliers, call for the revitalization and expansion of the UN Arms Flow Commission, and are committed to publicize and duly consider its findings;

African Heads of State and Government pledge to deny extremist networks the use of their territory, postal services, airports, financial institutions, passports, road networks, and communications systems. The Summit calls upon all states to implement tight controls over these networks abroad;

All Heads of State and Government pledge to support the efforts of the OAU Eminent Personalities Study of the Rwanda Genocide and the Surrounding Events, and to duly consider its findings and recommendations;

The United States commits itself to working with regional partners and others to begin exploring, within one month’s time, the creation of an international Coalition Against Genocide, the aims of which might include: fostering international coordination in support of regional efforts to enforce anti-genocide measures; providing a forum for high-level deliberations on long-term efforts to prevent genocide in the future; and ensuring international support for the findings of the OAU Study;

The Heads of State and Government commend the Government of Rwanda for its efforts to render justice for the victims of the genocide and to prevent acts of revenge. We call upon the international community to redouble its efforts to work with the Government of Rwanda to achieve these goals;

The Heads of State and Government recognize recent progress made by the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, but express their concern about the slow pace with which the Tribunal’s work has proceeded, urge the ICTR to do everything within its power to accelerate the processing of its cases, and call on all nations to cooperate fully and expeditiously with the Tribunal;

The Heads of State and Government affirm that the restoration of regional peace and stability requires an end to the culture of impunity and the restoration of the rule of law, and pledge their best efforts to strengthening national systems of civilian and military justice. The United States commits itself through the Great Lakes Justice Initiative, to an expanded effort to help the public and private sectors in Rwanda, Burundi and the Democratic Republic of Congo develop justice systems that are impartial, credible, and effective, and to support efforts to promote inclusion, coexistence, cooperation and security;


On Fostering Democratic Participation, Human Rights and Regional Stability:

The Heads of State and Government affirm that the destiny and security of Africa rest primarily in the hands of Africans themselves. The Leaders pledge to seek additional resources and, in consultation with the OAU and UN, to build upon ongoing efforts, both regionally and internationally, to strengthen and sustain regional security and African peacekeeping capacity. The Leaders condemn, and pledge continued cooperative efforts to resist, all forms of cross-border terrorism directed against civilians.

Recognizing that the stability of the region also depends on the sustainability of African democratization, the Heads of State and Government endorse the core principles of inclusion, the rule of law, respect for human rights, the equality of all men and women, and the right of citizens to regularly elect their leaders freely and to participate fully in the decision-making which affects them. Further:

The Heads of State and Government pledge to pursue a dialogue on democratization that: accepts these core principles; recognizes that there is no fixed model for democratic institutions or transformation; explores alternative approaches to the democratic management of cultural diversity; and takes into account differences in historical experience;

The Heads of State and Government recognize the central role of freely-elected governments in leading Africa’s economic and political transformation, the need to ensure that those governments attain the capacity to lead effectively and transparently, and the need to foster a healthy and mutually-accountable relationship between elected governments and a vibrant and responsible civil society;

The Heads of State and Government affirm the vital role national organizations of civil society can play in easing the transition from conflict and authoritarian rule to participatory democracy, and in contributing to the region’s social, political and economic development;

Recognizing the critical roles local and national institutions of government play in providing a foundation for democracy, the Heads of State and Government urge all concerned that increased emphasis be given to building the capacity of these institutions;

The Heads of State and Government underscore a shared commitment to respect for human rights, as articulated in the UN Declaration of Human Rights and the African Charter on Human and People’s Rights;

The Heads of State and Government urge the international community to take note of the lessons learned from the region’s tragic past. We pledge to uphold humanitarian principles, including the right of civilians to assistance in situations of conflict, and the protection of refugees and non-combatants. We call on the international community and host countries to prevent any future delivery of humanitarian assistance to armed combatants; to work to insure that refugees are not subjected to political intimidation; and to work closely with regional actors, both governmental and non-governmental, to insure access by humanitarian providers to all populations in need;

The Heads of State and Government applaud the commitment and effort made by the OAU Mechanism for Conflict Prevention, Management and Resolution, and by emerging sub-regional bodies, such as the Inter-Governmental Authority on Development, to foster African-led approaches to conflict prevention, management and resolution and pledge to work towards building further international support for these efforts.


On Pursuing the Partnership into the Future:

The Heads of State and Government unanimously agree to explore mechanisms for regular consultations and encounters at the highest level between African and U.S. leaders. Noting the importance of mutual understanding between African and American citizens, we call for expanded cultural and educational exchanges.

The African leaders noted with appreciation President Clinton’s historic visit to Africa and express the hope that his presence on the continent has opened a new chapter in Africa-U.S. relations. The Heads of State and Government recognize that the development of a lasting partnership, characterized by shared ownership and meaningful engagement, will require commitment, time and patience. The Leaders commit themselves to pursue this objective in the spirit of mutual respect, to deepen a frank and honest dialogue, to evaluate jointly progress made in the months ahead, and to secure a meaningful and lasting partnership for the 21st Century.

The President of the U.S.A. and the African Heads of State and Government express deep appreciation to President Yoweri Kaguta Museveni, the Government and the people of Uganda for the warm hospitality accorded to them during their visit to Uganda.


Done at Entebbe, Uganda on Wednesday 25th March, 1998.




























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