Positioning the United States for Scientific and
Technological Leadership and for Workforce
Productivity in the Twenty-First Century
"Education has been at the heart of America's progress for over 200 years. Let us pledge to give our children the best education in the world, and the support they need to build strong futures, higher standards in our schools, more choices, and the opportunity for all Americans to go on to college."
--President Bill Clinton
Science, mathematics, engineering, and technology today permeate the classroom, the home, the boardroom, manufacturing, services, and the entertainment world. The information revolution, spawned by striking scientific and technological advances, has triggered profound social and economic changes throughout the world, resulting in an intensely competitive global marketplace, with prime job opportunities increasingly available only to those with technical and critical thinking skills. The degree to which our nation prospers in the twenty-first century will depend upon our abilities to develop scientific and technical talent in our youth, to provide lifelong learning to a well-educated workforce able to embrace the rapid pace of technological change, and to raise the level of public scientific and technological literacy.
The core responsibility of government in human resource development is to strengthen America's educational system, from grade school through graduate school. Our institutions of learning - schools, two- and four-year colleges, and universities - assume a central role in a knowledge-based economy. Access to these institutions must be achievable for all those with talent and commitment. In addition, all children, irrespective of socioeconomic background, must have the physical, cognitive, social, and emotional development that is a prerequisite for effective learning. Quality of education and equality of educational opportunity are central to our political future as well as to producing the workforce needed to maintain American leadership in the next century.
While these observations apply across the educational spectrum, mathematics, science, and technology education acquire increased importance in the information age. The recently released results of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), cosponsored by the Department of Education and the National Science Foundation (NSF), show that we need to upgrade American students' knowledge and skills in these subjects. In comparison with counterparts in 40 other countries, American eighth grade students performed about average - slightly below in math, slightly above in science - and far behind the leaders. The study points to the need for curricula focused on developing problem-solving ability and analytical reasoning, the very skills needed for a changing, technology-dominated workplace. The commitment to rigorous content and performance standards embodied in the Goals 2000 legislation remains the key to both quality and equality. In addition, the diffusion of information technology into the classroom will, over time, better match instructional technique with the twenty-first century work environment. These initiatives are part of government's responsibility to create the prospect of a bright future for each of our children.
In the final analysis, the Federal government can foster human resource development only in partnership with teachers, workers, state and local government, academia, and business. Indeed, much of the leadership will necessarily come from those ranks. The Administration simply seeks a shared commitment to this crucial investment in our collective future - quality and equality of educational opportunity.
Maintaining leadership across the frontiers of science and producing the
finest scientists and engineers for the twenty-first century are
principal goals of this Administration's science and technology
policies. The American higher education system is justifiably envied for
its excellence in advanced training in science and engineering.
|SUSTAINING WORKFORCE TRAINING
Workplace and societal changes driven by technological advances are, if
anything, accelerating. The increased value placed on acquiring,
manipulating, and communicating data and knowledge increasingly places
work not in a particular geographical location but wherever the
knowledgeable and skilled workforce resides. For example, the number of
telecommuters just in the United States has been growing at 15 percent
per year and now exceeds ten million. Industrial jobs are rapidly being
transformed into technology jobs. About half of California's workers are
now "wired," using information technology as a core part of their work.
In addition, analysis of major policy issues facing the citizenry,
whether in the arena of health care or social policy or national defense
or the environment, increasingly requires some familiarity with science
Information technology has revolutionized America's businesses. Sixty percent of the new jobs in the year 2020 will require skills possessed by only 22 percent of our workers today. The degree to which our nation flourishes in the twenty-first century will rest upon our success in developing a well-educated workforce able to embrace the rapid pace of technological change. The FY 1998 budget includes a second installment for the President's new five-year, $2 billion Technology Literacy Challenge Fund to encourage States and communities, working with private sector partners, to develop and implement plans for fully integrating educational technology into their school criteria.
We must retrain
displaced workers if we are to fully develop our human resources in the
next century. A recent study in Pennsylvania demonstrated that for each
year of education provided through a special program for older displaced
workers, earnings increased by 7 percent. A major study of the Job
Training Partnership Act found that the Title II-A program for
economically disadvantaged adults increased earnings by 8 percent for
adult males and 15 percent for adult females, compared to
non-participants 30 months after program entry. The Administration has
"Middle Class Bill of Rights" to ensure that individual Americans
have the opportunity to upgrade their skills by returning to school or
by obtaining the training they need for new jobs.
EXPANDING TECHNOLOGICAL LITERACY
Over the past decade, technology has pervaded virtually every aspect of
our daily lives. Yet the opportunities for American students to learn
about and from rapidly advancing technology are severely limited in our
classrooms. The U.S. Department of Education estimates that only 4
percent of schools had one computer for every five students and only 9
percent of classrooms were connected to the Internet. In schools with
large concentrations of low-income students, the percentages are even lower.
Literacy Challenge Fund helps states and local communities create and
implement their own plans for integrating educational technology into
their school curricula.
IMPROVING K-12 EDUCATION
A key goal for the longterm is upgrading our entire system of K-12
education to meet the changing demands of the global marketplace. As
long ago as 1954, Walter Lippmann observed: "Our educational effort has
not been raised to the plateau of the age we live in... We must measure
it not by what would be easy and convenient to do, but by what it is
necessary to do in order that the nation may survive and flourish." The
technology and information revolution has raised the level of need to
yet another plateau, one where even classroom teaching tools must
incorporate the new technologies.
President Clinton and Vice President Gore believe that "all of us have a duty to ensure that every child has a chance to take part in the new information age." The President added that, "technological literacy must become the standard in our country. Computers can enrich the education of any child, but only if the child has access to a computer, good software and a competent, g ood teacher who can help that child learn how to use it. Preparing children for a lifetime of computer use is just as essential today as teaching basic skills was a few years ago."
The Administration wishes to be a partner in ensuring that quality improvements are made nationwide and reflect the national need. For example, while business is best suited to clarify the skills needed to meet the demands of newly created jobs, academia is best suited to clarifying the knowledge base needed for advanced study (e.g., through appropriate mathematics and science admission standards).
INVESTING IN OUR FUTURE-RESEARCH FOR LEARNING AND CHILD DEVELOPMENT
Our most important investments in human resource development are those
aimed at the biological, cognitive, social, and emotional development of
America's children. Our children carry our hopes for the future, and
preparing them for the twenty-first century clearly ranks among our most
important national priorities. The return on our investments in
education, such as those discussed above, will be maximized only through
other investments based on sound research that help our children's
readiness to learn.
follow-up studies of children provide the best means for assessing how
child development in "normal" conditions compares to what occurs in
adverse conditions, and how childhood and adolescent interventions can
best be targeted to the childhood antecedents of adult disease to
prevent or delay the onset of problems in adult life.
Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) compared
the academic performance of 500,000 students worldwide, including 40,000
Americans, at levels corresponding to U.S. grades four, eight, and
twelve. In November 1996, the eighth-grade results were released,
showing that among 40 other countries, U.S. students scored below the
international average in math and above the international average in
|NATIONS WITH AVERAGE SCORES SIGNIFICANTLY HIGHER THAN THE U.S.||NATIONS WITH AVERAGE SCORES NOT SIGNIFICANTLY DIFFERENT FROM THE U.S.||NATIONS WITH AVERAGE SCORES SIGNIFICANTLY LOWER THAN U.S.|
Iran, Islamic Rep. Kuwait
|NATIONS WITH AVERAGE SCORES SIGNIFICANTLY HIGHER THAN THE U.S.||NATIONS WITH AVERAGE SCORES NOT SIGNIFICANTLY DIFFERENT FROM THE U.S.||NATIONS WITH AVERAGE SCORES SIGNIFICANTLY LOWER THAN U.S.|
Iran, Islamic Rep. Cyprus
Latvia (LSS) indicates only Latvian-speaking schools were sampled
representing less than 65% of the population.
The importance attached to producing outstanding young scientists and engineers was demonstrated in December 1996 with the inaugural Presidential Early Career Awards for Scientists and Engineers. Sixty young scholars, most of them in the early part of their academic careers combining research and education, were honored for their research contributions, for their promise, and for their commitment to broader societal goals. Nine Federal departments and agencies joined together in nominating and selecting these young scientists and engineers. The breadth of their research interests demonstrates that societal goals spanning health, environmental quality, economic competitiveness, national security, and the advancement of knowledge are being addressed creatively by our brightest young scientists and engineers.
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Pina Fratamico, Agricultural Research Service - For innovative research and design of a rapid and sensitive technique to detect E. coli O157:H7 using specially treated magnetic beads to draw the bacterium out of foods.
Barbara Gartner, North Dakota State University - For outstanding research integrating plant growth and development, tree physiology and biochemistry, forest ecology, and wood science for the purpose of predicting wood quality variation.
Kenton Rodgers, Oregon State University - For outstanding research on the role of metalloproteins in cellular signaling specifically, elucidating how the heme iron-oxygen bond in hemoglobin affects activity of certain nitrogen fixation genes in Rhizobium bacteria.
DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE
John Daniel, NOAA Environmental Research Laboratories - For theoretical contributions to explaining stratospheric ozone depletion and climate change issues and defining how the dynamics of the atmosphere could influence the chemical composition to cause temporary slow-downs in the upward trends of several gases.
Eric Cornell, NIST Physics Laboratory - For leading the effort first demonstrating the quantum mechanical phenomenon of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) by using laser cooling and trapping of rubidium atoms to achieve high density followed by a sequence of evaporative cooling steps.
David Stensrud, NOAA Environmental Research Laboratories - For significant advances in the understanding of meso- and synoptic-scale weather systems by developing and applying innovative techniques for the incorporation of new data in numerical mod els for weather forecasting.
Roland Pozo, NIST Computing and Applied Mathematics Laboratory - For making significant contributions to the field of linear algebra software development and object-oriented numerical software design.
DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE
Andrea Bertozzi (Navy), Duke University - For research on analysis of dynamical systems and for pioneering work on finite time singularities in vortex patches.
Nesbitt Hagood (Navy), Massachusetts Institute of Technology - For pioneering research achievements to adaptively control and analyze structural vibrations, and the creation of active electronic control methodology.
Paul Laibinis (Navy), Massachusetts Institute of Technology - For pioneering work in interfacial chemistry resulting in self-assembled monolayers forming the basis of micro-patterned biosensor arrays.
Venkatakrishnan Selvamanickam (Air Force), Intermagnetics General Corporation - In recognition of significant research and development of novel processes for the fabrication of high temperature superconductors for electric power and magnetic applic ations.
Peter Sercel (Army), University of Oregon - For outstanding research innovation in experimental and theoretical studies of the effects of quantum confinement in semiconductors.
Gail Kineke (Navy), University of South Carolina - For significant interdisciplinary research on sediment mechanics, marine geology, and physical oceanography, to advance the state-of-the-art in sediment characterization.
DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY
Shenda Baker, Harvey Mudd College and Los Alamos National Laboratory - In recognition of research employing neutron scattering measurements of solid-solid and solid-liquid interfaces to study and improve the properties of advanced materials.
Richard Cairncross, University of Delaware and Sandia National Laboratory - For outstanding contributions to the advancement of direct simulation computational technology for manufacturing processes of critical importance to the Weapons Complex.
John Hill, Brookhaven National Laboratory - For elucidating the role of crystalline order in electron dynamics and of disorder in magnetic phase transitions, and for development of magnetic and inelastic x-ray scattering techniques in the study of condensed matter.
Philip Jardine, Oak Ridge National Laboratory - For research integrating field and laboratory studies with theoretical concepts that have advanced the understanding of nutrient cycling and contaminant reactions and transport in unsaturated, heterog enous soils.
Christine Siantar, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory - For innovative research in developing a new approach to the treatment of cancer, enabling physicians to plan radiation treatments with pinpoint accuracy, improving the ability to cure many forms of cancer while avoiding damage to healthy tissue.
Michael Smith, Oak Ridge National Laboratory - For leading astrophysics research in radioactive ion beam physics, and for contributing to the collection and evaluation of nuclear reaction data applicable to astrophysics phenomena.
DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS
Melissa Clark, VA Medical Center, Nashville, TN and Vanderbilt University - In recognition of innovative basic research on the molecular mechanisms of functional regulation of the xanthing dehydrogenase gene which is important in tissue injury.
Joseph Cubells, VA Medical Center, West Haven, CT and Yale University - For exceptional basic research concerning the molecular genetics underlying chemical and behavioral differences observed in individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia.
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
David Barnes, University of Arkansas - For innovative research comparing the effects of mercury and insulin on hexose transport and protein synthesis, and determining signal transduction pathways targeted by mercury.
Keith Grasman, Wright State University - For significant research on biomarkers for organochlorine-associated immunosuppression in fish-eating birds of the Great Lakes, contributing information on immunotoxicological effects, and new methods for identifying problem sites and recovery.
Qing-Huo Liu, New Mexico State University - For innovative research to the field of geophysical sensing using efficient numerical simulations for environmental applications.
NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND
Dora Angelaki, University of Mississippi Medical Center - For significant research advancement in investigating the adaptive mechanisms of visual-vestibular interactions in the determination of spatial orientation and movements in the weightlessness environment of space.
Christopher Chyba, Princeton University - For innovative research studying whether Martian craters that exhibit fluidized ejecta blankets are the result of impact melting of ice in permafrost or of the liberation of existing underground aquifers.
Andrea Donnellan, Jet Propulsion Laboratory - To recognize innovative use of data from continuous, permanent GPS sites and three-dimensional models required to identify intervening faults and stress which will contribute to understanding earthquake cycles and assessment of regional earthquake risk.
Heidi Sosik, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute - For developing an innovative combination of laser-based optical and fluorescence-based assays to study important biological oceanographic processes.
Ellen Stofan, Jet Propulsion Laboratory - For contributions to the scientific understanding of radar interpretation used on both the Magellan and SIR-C data.
Kimberly Weaver, Johns Hopkins University - To recognize significant contributions in x-ray studies to provide a solid test of the "obscuration-plus-viewing angle" unified model hypothesis for Seyfert galaxies.
NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH, HHS
Ali Hemmati-Brivanlou, Rockefeller University - For significant research in the field of neurobiology that has illuminated cellular mechanisms controlling normal development of the nervous system, and for setting the stage for studies to develop the capability to regenerate neural tissue.
Allison Doupe, University of California, San Francisco - In recognition of landmark contributions to understanding the role of the brain in the development of learning abilities and for pioneering and innovative contributions in integrative neuroscience.
Paul Khavari, Stanford University - For innovative research using the skin as a vehicle for gene therapy by the use of a topical agent that allows inserted genes to be expressed and the effects to be reversed in the event of an adverse outcome.
Aron Lukacher, Emory University - For major contributions to the understanding of antiviral immunity, and innovative research on the development of cellular immunity to polyoma virus-induced tumors in mice.
Deirdre Meldrum, University of Washington - For recognition of innovative research utilizing a broad set of interdisciplinary approaches to advance DNA sequencing technology.
Lee Ann Niswander, Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research - For research leading to a better understanding of limb formation during embryonic development, providing the basis for future studies that will assist in the prevention of birth defects.
David Self, Yale University - For achievement in basic research that advances the knowledge of mechanisms underlying drug abuse and addiction through the innovative integration of molecular biological techniques with behavioral, pharmacological, and biochemical methods.
Morgan Sheng, Massachusetts General Hospital - For outstanding contributions to the field of neuroscience by conducting research concerning the molecular basis of neuronal signaling and memory.
Mark Walter, University of Alabama, Birmingham - For conducting highly successful research on the molecular structure of lymphokines and providing new insight into the structure and function relationships of cellular signaling proteins.
Keith Woerpel, University of California, Irvine - For achievements in organic chemistry applied to the preparation of complex molecules of biomedical importance, including new antibiotics for combating infections in immunocompromised patients.
NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION
David Burke, University of Michigan - For outstanding research at the interface of molecular genetics and engineering technology that clarifies genetic factors in aging and lays the foundation for the next generation of genetic-analysis equipment using silicon-microfabrication engineering technology.
Erick Carreira, California Institute of Technology - For major contributions in synthetic organic chemistry, including the first total synthesis of (+)zaragozic acid C, an enzyme inhibitor relevant to the discovery of therapeutically useful cholesterol-lowering agents.
Fengshan Chen, Florida International University - For outstanding research contributions to the simulation of advanced manufacturing processes for design and real-time control of flexible manufacturing systems.
Juan de Pablo, University of Wisconsin, Madison - To recognize excellent research in equilibrium and nonequilibrium thermophysical fluid properties involving atomistic modeling.
Peter Delfyett, University of Central Florida - For outstanding engineering research contributions in ultrafast optics and photonic technologies.
Bonnie Dorr, University of Maryland - For outstanding contributions to computer science and linguistics in the design and implementation of natural language processing systems for machine translation and foreign language tutoring.
Weinan E, New York University - To recognize innovative applications of mathematics to the explanation of the behavior of complex materials and fluids, including liquid crystals, polymers, superconductors, and turbulent flows.
Marc Edwards, University of Colorado - For research achievements in corrosion control, oxidation processes, and arsenic chemistry and research on fundamental reactions controlling metal corrosion in drinking water.
Mark Gluck, Rutgers University - For outstanding contributions to understanding the cognitive neuroscience of human learning, by evaluating computational models of neural networks that relate brain mechanisms to emergent behaviors and integrating behavioral and psychobiological approaches to animal and human learning.
Marilyn Gunner, City College of CUNY - For outstanding biophysics research on the role of electrostatic forces in protein stability and function and the coupling of electron and proton transfer events in photosynthesis and in electron-transfer proteins.
Daniel Hess, University of South Florida - In recognition of major contributions to fundamental research addressing pervasive issues in the dynamics of mechanical and structural systems with friction.
Ruey-Jen Hwu Sadwick, University of Utah - To recognize leadership in fundamental engineering research to enable practical high-power, high-frequency electronic and optoelectronic systems.
Robert Kennedy, University of Florida - For outstanding research in bioanalytical chemistry, including development of an insulin-sensitive microelectrode that can detect secretions from single cells and of rapid immunoassay techniques based on capillary electrophoresis.
Michael Kremer, Massachusetts Institute of Technology - For emerging work on the role of education and health policy in developing nations and creative analysis of economic growth and economic development on factors that affect divergent growth rates among industrial economies.
Charles Marcus, Stanford University - For innovative investigations of the physics of electron conduction in the mesoscopic regime, a physically and quantum mechanically constrained region relevant to the development of atomic and molecular scale electronic devices and to the understanding of neural networks.
Massoud Pedram, University of Southern California - In recognition of outstanding contributions to computer-aided design technology, especially in low power analysis and synthesis of integrated circuits relevant to the development of portable infor mation systems.
John Sutherland, Michigan Technological University - For excellence in research on the environment, machining, and applied statistics, and for studies focusing on critical issues in environmentally conscious manufacturing.
Todd Verdoorn, Vanderbilt University - In recognition of outstanding innovative neuropharmacology research that advances understanding of the structure and function of neuronal glutamate receptors.
Michael Wysession, Washington University in St. Louis - To recognize excellence in research on the geophysics of the solid Earth, especially for combining seismic imaging with geophysical constraints to understand the dynamics of the complex boundary between the core and the mantle of the deep earth.
John Yin, Dartmouth College - In recognition of achievement in research on the dynamics of viral growth and adaption and their potential to influence the design of efficient multi-molecular manufacturing processes.
The first recipients of the Presidential Awards for Excellence in Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Mentoring. At the White House in September 1996, the honorees included ten individuals and six institutions that have been exemplary in their encouragement of minorities, women, and people with disabilities to pursue careers in scientific and technical fields. President Clint on noted that they would "serve as examples to their colleagues and will be leaders in the national effort to train the next century's scientists, mathematicians, and engineers."
MATHEMATICS, AND ENGINEERING MENTORING
--President Bill Clinton
On August 28, 1996, President Clinton, recognizing that children are our
nation's greatest asset and its future, announced the America Reads Challenge. Working
with parents and educators, this unprecedented initiative calls on all
Americans - schools, libraries, religious institutions, universities,
college students, the media, community and national groups, cultural
organizations, business leaders, and our nation's senior citizens - to
ensure that every American child can read well and independently by the
end of third grade. Some students need extra help beyond the classroom
to read well. Reading is a skill, in particular, that is developed not
only in the cla ssroom, but also in the community and in the home.
Part of the groundwork for literacy skills is established by the time
the child enters kindergarten, but exactly how is this base acquired?
Recent research is persuading experts that a child's best preparation
for literacy is a very diverse and rich early language environment that
provides varied opportunities to learn about the world and a range of
topics through language.
President Clinton's America Reads Challenge reflects the Administration's belief that every child needs to be able to read well and independently. Recent research on early literacy indicates that a child acquires essential basic literacy skills before learning to read, and that early exposure to a language-rich environment is critical to the child's long-term academic development.
As a poor, Mexican American child, Richard Tapia knew he excelled in
math and science, but how his technical abilities could lead him out of
inner city Los Angeles seemed uncertain. "I just needed someone to tell
me, 'Yes, it's possible.'"
Honored for his mentoring efforts, Richard Tapia of Rice University is flanked by Neal Lane, National Science Foundation Director (L) and John Gibbons, Assistant to the President for Science and Technology.
In addition to
teaching and research, Tapia began and now directs all outreach programs
of the NSF-funded Center for Research on Parallel Computation at Rice.
In less than ten years, these programs have trained and encouraged more
than 750 students and 700 teachers, especially underrepresented
minorities and women, to pursue careers in mathematics and science. He
is as comfortable speaking to a class of second-graders as to a graduate
school seminar. All the while, he is urging his network of teachers,
students, and community leaders to interact with each other to make the
world a better place.
Absher of Duke University was honored at a White House ceremony
for her outstanding efforts to encourage minorities and persons with
disabilities to pursue scientific and technical careers.
program provides laboratory research experience, and develops mentoring
relationships with students from six universities, including Gallaudet
and five Historically Black Colleges and Universities. Students from
her program often become mentors to other students. She concentrates on
follow-up because students who face challenges, such as disabilities,
are often unable to turn one positive experience into continued career
IN HUMAN RESOURCES AND EDUCATION