more accurately monitor the HIV epidemic and provide data to assess and
direct prevention programs by strengthening existing systems and developing
new surveillance systems.
projects that evaluate and expand the uses of HIV infection and AIDS
case surveillance and sero-surveillance data so that these data systems
can more effectively guide public health policy and provide relevant
information necessary to direct and evaluate prevention activities.
understanding of the natural history of HIV infection as well as the
risk factors and protective factors for sexual, drug-related, perinatal,
and healthcare worker related HIV transmission in order to develop more
effective prevention strategies for all affected populations.
HIV infection reporting systems (named, anonymous, unique identifier)
used nationally for their ability to monitor the epidemic, provide linkages
to medical and social services, and to assess their impact on a person's
decision to be tested.
high-risk behaviors of persons with evidence of recent HIV infection
such as persons with documented HIV seroconversion, high CD4+ counts,
or diagnosis of HIV infection in adolescents.
the impact of public health guidelines and recommendations and prevention
efforts. Characterize persons co-infected with TB and HIV.
ways to improve the completeness and quality of risk ascertainment on
persons reported with HIV and AIDS. Identify and characterize previously
unreported AIDS cases among deaths investigated by local medical examiners
to assess the impact of under-diagnosis of AIDS cases on AIDS surveillance
among disadvantaged populations that often do not receive adequate health
the efficiency of new techniques for reporting HIV and AIDS surveillance
data from health care providers and laboratories to health departments.
additional data on persons reported through HIV/AIDS surveillance which
may be important for the planning and evaluation of prevention and care
programs, such as social/economic status, levels of disabilities, drug
use history, sex behavior history, utilization of HIV testing and medical
care services, and reproductive history in women.
the interrelationship of behaviors, HIV markers and surrogates, and
their potential role in surveillance systems.
the interaction of socioeconomic, behavioral, and biologic factors in
the role of female-specific biological factors that are linked to acquisition
and transmission of HIV infection and that influence the course of HIV
factors contributing to the efficiency of sexual transmission of HIV.
the risk of transmission of HIV and TB from HIV-infected health-care
worker to patient and vice versa. Develop systems to monitor the emergence
of multidrug-resistant TB in the HIV infected.
to develop improved methods for projecting or modeling the HIV epidemic.
methods to differentiate HIV-specific antibodies generated in participants
in HIV vaccine trials from those generated in response to HIV infection.
methods to identify potential cases of HCW-to-patient transmission.
HIV reporting systems to collect information about primary and secondary
HIV prevention services needed and received by HIV-positive clients
(in collaboration with HRSA).
with providers and users of lab services to develop and implement systems
which provide assurance that the capacity and quality requirements for
HIV testing are met.
with international partners to study TB, implement vaccine trials, enhance
clinical management, assess prevention efficacy, and improve program
management of HIV/AIDS.
methods to evaluate the use of HIV infection and AIDS surveillance systems
to assess early intervention strategies.
the activities in the above-cited action steps are carried out through
cooperative agreements with state and local health departments. In addition,
specialized projects and studies also serve to focus attention on these
activities, these include:
of HIV Infection Reporting Systems Project
HIV Infection Projects
to Evaluate Prevention Projects
Spectrum of Disease Project
- TB Project
of Transmission Validation Project
of AIDS Surveillance Efficiency Projec
major racial, ethnic, and risk groups.
is regular consultation with national, State, and local public health officials
and many other relevant organizations such as HIV-related community-based