To accomplish the goals of the NEP, the NESW developed a series of targets,together with agency responsibility. These specific actions will be themeasure of the NEP's success. An expanded description of these targets iscontained in Appendix C. Assignment of agency responsibility is made inaccordance with Public Law 95-124, as amended, or, where targets fall outsidethe scope of Public Law 95-124, to the federal agency whose current programmaticactivities best align with the target. In most cases the conduct of theresearch and outreach required to achieve these targets and produce thecorresponding products involves the coordinated efforts of several agenciesand requires working partnerships with State and local officials, volunteerprofessional groups, and other interested parties.

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1. Provide leadership and coordination for federal earthquake research

The objectives are to integrate federal earthquake-related program and budgetplanning; develop a balanced, prioritized and integrated national researchand implementation agenda; facilitate cooperation and information exchangeamong all interested parties, domestic and international; advocate policiesand practices and recommend legislation as appropriate; and conduct periodicperformance assessments. Responsibility for meeting this goal lies withall program agencies as well as with the interagency Program Office to beestablished as part of the NEP.

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TargetsResponsibility Other
1. Work with the National Science and Technology Council to establisha leadership mechanism to assure implementation of the Strategy. The mechanismshall report every two years to the President and to the Congress.All Program Agencies
2. Integrate federalearthquake-related planning into the new mechanism over a five year periodbeginning in Fiscal Year 1996. All Program Agencies
3. Develop a balanced national prioritized research and mitigationagenda, confirmed or adjusted on a regular basis, incorporating a broad-basedassessment of user needs that includes the needs of agencies to supportspecial or unique missions. All Program Agencies
4. Facilitate cooperation and leverage across all agenciesand groups with programmatic interests in earthquake loss reduction, including,but not limited to federal, state, local, private, voluntary, and publicutility groups. All Program Agencies
5. Develop an overall nationwide strategic plan to integrate and coordinateexisting but currently separate research and mitigation programs into aunified, needs-driven, goal-oriented program consistent with the NationalEarthquake Strategy goals. All Program Agencies
6. Advocate policies and practices nationwide and recommendlegislation as appropriate. All Program Agencies
7. Conduct a biennial performance assessment and report ofcoordination and mitigation activities under the Program. This report shallinclude accomplishments towards achieving the goals and recommendationsfor improving the Strategy. All Program Agencies
8. Provide a focal point for federal international collaborativeprograms in research on earthquake loss reduction and in technology transferfor improved earthquake hazard mitigation. All Program Agencies

2. Continue and expand technology transfer and outreach

Developing and sustaining an awareness of risk and risk reduction techniquesand technology is a continuing challenge. The Strategy includes developmentof credible earthquake planning scenarios; assessment of the costs and benefitsof alternative mitigation strategies for new and existing construction;targeted training programs and development and dissemination of tools fordesign professionals; support of public and private consortia with interestsin this area; making research more effectively available to insurance regulatorsand the insurance industry; and a more systematic approach to communicatingthe nation's achievements in earthquake hazard reduction.

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TargetsResponsibility Other
1. Develop credible earthquake scenarios including vulnerabilities andloss estimates which are sensitive to emotional and political issues, usingGIS technology. FEMA USGS NSF NIST, HHS, NCS, DVA, NOAA
2. Develop assessments of the costs and benefits of various mitigationstrategies for new and existing construction. All Program Agencies
3. Conduct targeted training and education programs.All Program Agencies
4. Encourage andassist regional consortia. All Program Agencies
5. Embrace and support voluntary mitigation. AllProgram Agencies
6. Communicate achievements,progress, and successes of the National Earthquake loss reduction Programand its member agencies and alliances. All Program Agencies
7. Encourage and assist insurance regulators andthe insurance industry through publishing regular reports and presentingupdates in information and methodology at insurance fora. FEMANIST Treasury HHS, USGS, HUD, NSF, DOE, DVA, DOT
8. Develop and disseminate tools for design professionals that incorporatestate-of-the-art information on mitigation strategies and methods.NIST NSF USGS

3. Improve engineering of the built environment

While in recent times the United States has built an enviable record interms of the comparatively small number of lives lost in earthquakes, thecost of damage to buildings and infrastructure is still unacceptably high.Future research will continue to develop concepts and criteria to permitthe continued functioning of buildings and lifelines after an earthquakeand develop effective and economical methods for evaluating and retrofittingexisting seismically hazardous structures. Work will also examine wind effects,which have similarly destructive effects on the built environment, to improvebuilding standards and practices.

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TargetsResponsibility Other
1. Develop improved analytical techniques for dynamic, non-linear responseof complex, unconventional materials, structures, and lifelines. NISTNSF FEMA, DOE, DOD, USGS, HUD, EPA, DOT
2.Develop new and innovative systems of construction that are economical yetinherently earthquake resistant. NIST NSF FEMA, DOE, DOD,HUD, DOT
3. Develop performance-based design conceptsand criteria for buildings and lifeline systems. NIST NSFFEMA, DOE, DOD, HUD, DOT
4. Understand seismic behaviorof non-building structures and lifeline systems. NIST NSFFEMA, DOE, DOD, HUD, USGS, DOT
5. Develop effectiveand economical methods to evaluate and retrofit existing seismically hazardousstructures. NSF, NIST FEMA, DOE, DOD, HUD, DOT
6. Develop experimental engineering research capability and conductverification and proof-of-principle projects. NSF, NIST FEMA,DOE, DOD, HUD, DOT

4 . Improve data for construction standards and codes

Efforts will focus on developing and making available to code-writing bodiesmaterials to improve standards for construction of new buildings and lifelines,and rehabilitation standards for rehabilitating existing buildings and otherstructures. Concurrently, efforts will be undertaken to develop multihazard(wind, earthquake, tsunami) standards and to develop improved capabilitiesfor the analysis and testing of structures and lifelines.

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TargetsResponsibility Other
1. Develop and make available resource documents for use by code writingbodies, state insurance offices, and insurance firms on improved functionality-preservingseismic design criteria for new buildings and other structures, includingcost estimates. NIST NSF FEMA DOE, DOD, EPA, DOT, DVA,USGS, NCS, HUD, HHS, OMB, EPA
2. Develop and make availableresource documents for use by code writing bodies, insurance companies,and regulators on performance-based seismic design standards for lifelines.NIST NSF FEMA USGS, DOE, NCS, DOD, EPA, DOT, HHS, DVA, HUD
3. By the year 2005, develop and make available resourcedocuments for use by code writing bodies, insurance companies, and regulatorson rehabilitation standards for existing buildings. FEMA NIST NSFFEMA, DOD, EPA, DOT, GSA, HHS, DVA, DOE, HUD
4.By the year 2000, introduce multi-hazard standards. FEMA NIST NSFUSGS, FEMA, DOD, EPA, DOT, GSA, DVA, HUD, DOE
5.Develop improved capabilities for analysis and testing of structures, includinglifelines. NSF, NIST FEMA, DOD, DOE, DOT, HUD, DVA, USGS
6. Develop means to mitigate tsunami effects by incorporatingreadings from deep-water pressure sensors to improve early tsunami warningsystems. NOAA USGS FEMA, NIST, NSF, USGS, DOT, HHS, DOD,DVA

5. Continue development of seismic hazard and risk assessment tools

There is an urgent need to develop and provide immediately useful informationto planners and decision makers. Research will develop improved methodsfor estimating losses from potential earthquakes and quantifying the riskfor high-hazard communities. This effort will produce large- and small-scalemaps that depict the seismic hazards, accessible through geographic informationsystem data bases. Work will continue to improve understanding of basicseismic forces, improve the quality and quantity of data recorded in actualevents, and advance forecasting techniques and technologies for both earthquakesand resulting tsunamis.

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TargetsResponsibility Other
1. Improve loss estimation methodology. Develop earthquake scenarioslinking building types and lifelines with the effects of strong shakingand ground failure to provide better estimates of life losses, injure, publichealth impact, property losses, and indirect economic effects. USGSNIST, GSA, DOT, DOD, DOE, NSF, FEMA, HHS, HUD
2.By the year 1998, develop seismic risk assessment methodology and quantifyseismic risk for communities exposed to high seismic hazard. USGSFEMA, NSF, DOE, NOAA, DVA, HUD
3. By the year 2000,provide demonstration seismic hazard microzonation maps for representativesections of selected cities exposed to the highest earthquake hazard.USGS FEMA, NSF, DOE, NOAA, NASA, DVA
4.By the year 2005 provide regional seismic hazard maps, interpretations,and guidelines as the basis for seismic zonation, implementation of earthquakecodes, and local land-use decisions. USGS FEMA, NSF, DOE,NASA, NOAA, DVA
5. Improve earthquake hazard assessmentand forecasting using historical seismicity and paleoseismicity, and evaluatethe role of emerging technologies. USGS NASA NSF, DOE
6. Provide high-quality earthquake recordings and derivedbasic seismic information to researchers and practitioners on an ongoingbasis. USGS NSF, DOE, NASA, NOAA, DOD
7. Understand critical earthquake topics such as plate interaction insubduction zones, blind faults, fold and thrust belts appropriate to geographicallydiverse areas. USGS NASA, NSF, DOE
8.Improve understanding of strong ground motions, including nonlinear siteresponse, directivity and topographic effects, and foundation instability.USGS NSF NIST, DOE, DOD, DOT, DVA
9. Developan accessible digital GIS database. USGS FEMA FEMA, NSF,EPA, DOT, NASA, DOD, NOAA, DVA
10. Improve foreknowledgeof and response to tsunami hazards. NOAA USGS FEMA NIST,NSF, USGS, DOT, HHS, DVA, DOD

6. Analyze seismic hazard mitigation incentives

Activities in this category will explore and evaluate mechanisms that mayencourage the adoption and enforcement of up-to-date model codes and standards,as well as explore socioeconomic factors that impede mitigation and preparedness.

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TargetsResponsibility Other
1. Evaluate mechanisms and advise Congress and relevant Executive Branchoffices to achieve adoption and enforcement by the year 2000 of up-to-datemodel building codes and standards to govern all new building and lifelinedesign and construction. FEMA NIST, GSA, OMB, NEC, DOD,DOE, HUD
2. Provide guidance and lead by example onspecific mitigation measures which may be used in a federal incentive program.FEMA NIST USGS GSA, EPA, HHS, OMB, NEC, NSF, HUD
3. Better understand the socioeconomic barriers to mitigation andpreparedness. FEMA OMB, NEC, HUD

7. Develop understanding of the societal and institutional issues relatedto earthquake hazard mitigation

Since hazard reduction measures are ultimately local actions, the NEP focuseson social factors, including those that facilitate or hinder the adoptionof seismic safety measures; social and economic costs and benefits of thesemeasures; social responses to earthquakes; and the practice and techniquesof multihazard mitigation and preparedness planning.

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Targets ResponsibilityOther
1. Determine the social and economic benefitsand costs of various mitigation measures such as codes, land-use planning,insurance, and educational programs for different sectors of society.FEMA NSF USGS HUD, Treasury
2. Identifythe social, economic, and political factors that facilitate and hinder theadoption and implementation of seismic safety measures. FEMA NSFUSGS HUD
3. Investigate the societal responsesto earthquakes, including emergency response systems, and individual, business,and community recovery from such events. FEMA NSF HUD,HHS, USGS
4. Analyze multi-hazard mitigation and preparednessplanning. FEMA NSF HUD, HHS, USGS

8. Analyze the medical and public health consequences of earthquakes

Work in this area will include support of epidemiological research, theintegration of casualty and medical needs predictions into loss estimationmodels, improvement in the rapid assessment of earthquake health effects- both short and long term, and associated development of more effectiverescue, medical training, and public health programs.

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Targets ResponsibilityOther
1. Identify potential strategies to preventor mitigate the adverse health consequences of earthquakes through epidemiologicalresearch. HHS FEMA, NOAA, DVA
2. Integratepredictions of casualties and medical needs into methodologies for estimatingearthquake loss. HHS, NSF USGS FEMA NOAA, DVA, NCS, NSF,NIST
3. Develop validated indicators for rapid assessmentof the health effects and potential health effects of earthquakes and relatedhealth needs in order to determine the most appropriate medical requirementsduring the critical first few hours after impact. HHS FEMA,NIST, EPA, DVA, DOE, DOD
4. Develop more effective rescue,medical training, and public health programs. HHS FEMA NIST,DOD, DOT, GSA, DVA
5. Develop effective operationalprocedures for meeting the health needs of people with special requirementssuch as evacuees from hospitals and nursing homes. HHS FEMANIST, NSF, DOD, EPA, DOT, GSA, NASA, NCS, NOAA, OMB, DVA, DOE, HUD
6. Develop an emergency communications system to ensure effectivecoordination of medical and health needs at the local, State, and Federallevels. FEMA NIST, NSF, DOD, EPA, DOT, GSA, HHS, NASA,NCS, NOAA, OMB, DVA, DOE, HUD, HHS

9. Continue documentation of earthquakes and their effects

Efforts will focus on standards and specifications for official documentationof earthquakes, the establishment of timelines for the publication of reports,and the conventions for distributing this information.

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TargetsResponsibility Other
1. Establish standards and specifications for official documentationof earthquakes by 1996. FEMA USGS NIST, NSF, DOD, EPA,DOT, GSA, HHS, NASA, NCS, NOAA, OMB, DVA, DOE, HUD, HHS
2. Prepare and publish a reconnaissance report, collect ephemeral data,and complete major aspects of a research plan within one year of each majorearthquake event. FEMA USGS NIST, NSF, DOD, EPA, DOT,GSA, HHS, NASA, NCS, NOAA, OMB, DVA, DOE, HUD, HHS
3.Prepare and publish an in-depth report within four years of each major earthquakeevent. FEMA USGS NIST, NSF, DOD, EPA, DOT, GSA, HHS, NASA,NCS, NOAA, OMB, DVA, DOE, HUD, HHS
4. Post informationon electronic data base for easy access by any interested party. FEMAUSGS NIST, NSF, DOD, EPA, DOT, GSA, HHS, NASA, NCS, NOAA, OMB,DVA, DOE, HUD, HHS

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Strategy for National Earthquake Loss Reduction