April 1998




Council of Economic Advisers
Old Executive Office Building
Washington, D.C. 20502
(202) 395-5036
(202) 395-6947


September 19, 1955


Ph.D. in Economics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, June 1983.

B.S. in Economics, Summa Cum Laude, University of Minnesota, June 1976.


Council of Economic Advisers, Washington, D.C. October 1997-present, Member-nominee (awaiting Senate Confirmation)

Northwestern University September 1989-present (Currently on leave).  Director, Joint Center for Poverty Research, 1996-97.  Professor of Economics, 1994-present; Associate Professor of Economics, 1989-94.  Research Faculty, Center for Urban Affairs and Policy Research. 1989-present. Associate Professor, School of Education and Social Policy. 1989-93. Co-Director, Northwestern/University of Chicago Interdisciplinary Training Program in Poverty, Race, and Underclass Issues. 1991-96.

Council of Economic Advisers, Washington, D.C. August 1989 - July 1990. Senior Staff Economist

Princeton University September 1983 - August 1989.   Assistant Professor of Economics and Public Affairs Department of Economics and Woodrow Wilson School of Public & International Affairs

Massachusetts Institute of Technology September 1988 - May 1989. Visiting Assistant Professor of Economics

University of Wisconsin-Madison Fall 1985. Visiting Fellow, Department of Economics and Institute for Research on Poverty

Data Resources, Inc. June 1976 - August 1979. Consultant & Educational Coordinator, Chicago Office.



1993 David Kershaw prize winner. Awarded biannually by the Association of Public Policy and Management to the young scholar (under age 40) whose research has had the most impact on the public policy process.

1985 Junior Faculty Teaching Award, Department of Economics, Princeton University.

President, M.I.T. Graduate Economics Association, 1980-1982.

Summa Cum Laude degree in Economics, B.S., University of Minnesota, 1976.

Phi Beta Kappa, 1975.



Russell Sage Foundation. "Race and Gender in the Labor Market." Joint with Joseph Altonji. March 1997-December 1997.

National Science Foundation Research Grant #SBR95-11090. "An Analysis of Changing Patterns in Public Assistance Use." August 1995-July 1997.

Joint funding from the Rockefeller Foundation and the Russell Sage Foundation. "Changing Poverty/Changing Jobs." September 1994-August 1995.

National Science Foundation Research Grant #SES-9209245, "Labor Market Dynamics and the Use of Part-time Work." November 1992-October 1994.

Joint Statistical Agreement, U.S. Bureau of The Census, "Multiple Program Use in a Dynamic Context in the Survey of Income and Program Participation." September 1991-August 1992.

Jerome Levy Economics Institute, Research Project on the Distribution of Income and Wealth, "Why Are Poverty Rates So High in the 1980s?" September 1990-July 1991.

National Science Foundation, Visiting Professorships for Women Award, "Exploring Income Opportunities for Low-Income Households," September 1988-July 1989.

National Science Foundation Research Grant #SES-8606456, "Analyzing the Nature and Extent of Welfare Income Dependency," August 1986-July 1988.

Small Grants Program Award, Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin, l984.

Sloan Foundation Graduate Fellowship, 1982-1983.

National Science Foundation Graduate Fellowship, 1979-1982.



It Takes A Nation: A New Agenda for Fighting Poverty. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 1997.

Social Protection vs. Economic Flexibility: Is There a Tradeoff? Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1994. (Editor and author of two articles in the volume.)

Do Justice: Linking Christian Faith and Modern Economic Life. Cleveland, OH: Pilgrim Press. 1992.


PUBLICATIONS -- Journal Articles:

"Labor Market Dynamics and Part-time Work," in Research in Labor Economics, Vol 17. Solomon W. Polacheck, ed. Greenwich, CN: JAI Press. Forthcoming

"Trends in the Welfare System," in The Effect of the Welfare System on the Family: WhatDo We Know? What Do We Need to Know? Robert Moffitt, ed. Washington, D.C.: National Research Council Press. Forthcoming.

"Contingent Work in a Changing Labor Market,@ in Generating Jobs: How to IncreaseDemand for Less-Skilled Workers. Richard B. Freeman and Peter Gottschalk, eds. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. 1998.

"Why Has Economic Growth Been Such an Ineffective Tool Against Poverty in Recent Years?" in Poverty and Inequality: The Political Economics of Redistribution, Jon Neill, ed. Kalamazoo, MI: W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research. 1997.

"Research and Policy Reflections on the Structural Changes Occuring in North American Labour Markets." Transition and Structural Change in the North American Labour Market, Michael G. Abbott, Charles M Beach and Richard P. Chaykowski, eds. Kingston, Ontario: IRC Press at Queen's University. 1997.

"Policy Watch: The 1996 Welfare Reform." Journal of Economic Perspectives. Vol 11:1,  Winter 1997. p169-77.

"The Misdiagnosis of Eurosclerosis." The American Prospect. No. 30, January-February 1997. p81-85.

"State Abortion Rates: The Impact of Policies, Providers, Politics, Demographics, and Economic Environment." (with Christine C. George and Rebecca A. London). Journal of Health

Economics. Vol 15. Fall 1996. p513-53.

"Trends in the Working Poor: The Impact of Economy, Family, and Policy" (joint with Rebecca London). America=s Working Poor. Thomas R. Swartz and Kathleen Maas Weigert, eds. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press. 1996.

"When Do Women Use AFDC and Food Stamps? The Dynamics of Eligibility vs. Participation" (with Patricia Ruggles). Journal of Human Resources. Vol 31:1, Winter 1996. p57-89.

"Trends in Poverty in the United States." The State of Humanity, Julian L. Simon, editor. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell. 1995.

"Teen Pregnancy: Government Programs Are Not the Cause." Feminist Economics. Vol 1:2, Summer 1995. p47-58.

"Poverty and Public Policy in the 1990s," Populations at Risk in America. George J. Demko and Michael G. Jackson, eds. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. 1995.

"Changes in Inequality and Unemployment Over the 1980s: Comparative Cross-National Responses." Journal of Population Economics. Vol 8:1, February 1995. p1-21.

"Outlook for the U.S. Labor Market and Prospects for Low-Wage Entry Jobs" in  The Work Alternative: Welfare Reform and the Realities in the Job Market. Demetra S. Nightingale and Robert H. Haveman, eds. Washington, D.C.: Urban Institute Press. 1995.

"Policy Watch: Proposals for Time-Limited Welfare." Journal of Economic Perspectives. Vol 8:4, Fall 1994. p183-93.

"The Employment Strategy: Public Policies to Increase Work and Earnings" in Confronting Poverty: Prescriptions for Change. Sheldon H. Danziger, Gary D. Sandefur, and Daniel H, Weinberg, eds. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 1994.

"Does a Larger Social Safety Net Mean Less Economic Flexibility?" Working Under Different Rules, Richard B. Freeman, ed. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. 1994.

"Short-term Recidivism Among Public Assistance Recipients." American Economic Review. Vol 84:2, May 1994. p49-53.

"The Widening Wage Distribution and its Policy Implications," in Aspects of Distribution of Wealth and Income. Dimitri B. Papadimitriou, ed. New York: St. Martin's Press. 1994.

"Poverty, Income Distribution, and Growth: Are They Still Connected? (with David Card). Brookings Papers on Economic Activity. 1993:2, p285-325.

"Why Were Poverty Rates So High in the 1980s?" in Poverty and Prosperity in the Late Twentieth Century, Dimitri B. Papadimitriou and Edward N. Wolff, eds. London: Macmillan Press. 1993.

"Responding to Need: A Comparison of Social Safety Nets in the U.S. and Canada,"  (with Maria Hanratty) in Small Differences that Matter, David Card and Richard Freeman, eds. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1993.

"What Should Mainstream Economists Learn from Feminist Theory?" in Beyond Economic Man: Feminist Theory and Economics," Marianne A. Ferber and Julie A. Nelson, eds. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1993.

Multiple Program Use in a Dynamic Context: Data From the SIPP (with Patricia Ruggles). Report to the U.S. Bureau of the Census, No 9301. December 1992.

"Using the Survey of Income and Program Participation to Understand Poverty and Economic Need," (with Patricia Ruggles). Journal of Economic and Social Measurement. Vol 18, 1992. p155-76.

"Social Scientists and the Problem of Poverty," The Chronicle of Higher Education. Vol 38: 48, August 5, 1992. pB1.

"Down and Out in North America: Recent Trends in Poverty in the U.S. and Canada," (with Maria Hanratty). Quarterly Journal of Economics. Vol 107:1, February 1992. p233-54.

"A Feminist Perspective on Economic Man?" in Revolutions in Knowledge: Feminism in the Social Sciences, Susan R. Zalk and Janice Gordon-Kelter, eds. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. 1992.

"The Effects of Double-Blind versus Single-blind Reviewing: Experimental Evidence from the American Economic Review." American Economic Review. Vol 81:5, December 1991. p1041-67.

"Recent Trends in Insured and Uninsured Unemployment: Is There an Explanation?" (with David Card) Quarterly Journal of Economics. Vol 106:4, November 1991. p1157-89.

"Understanding Part-time Work," in Research in Labor Economics, Volume 11, Lauri J. Bassi and David L. Crawford, eds. Greenwich, CN: JAI Press. 1990.

"Are Part-time Jobs Bad Jobs?" in A Future of Lousy Jobs? The Changing Structure of U.S. Wages, Gary Burtless, editor. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution, 1990.

"Recent Trends in Housing Conditions Among the Urban Poor," (with Harvey S. Rosen) in Research in Urban Economics, Volume 8, Mark A. Hughes and Therese J. McGuire, eds. Greenwich, CN: JAI Press. 1990.

"Linking Faith and Economics: The UCC Experience," (with Audrey R. Chapman) PRISM: A Theological Forum for the United Church of Christ. Vol 5:1, Spring 1990. p5-14.

"Why Are Wages Cyclical in the 1970s?" Journal of Labor Economics. Vol 8:1, January 1990. p16-47.

"Analyzing the Duration of Welfare Spells," Journal of Public Economics. Vol 39:3,  August 1989. p245-73.

"Women and the Economics of Military Spending," (with Lourdes Beneria) in Rocking the Ship of State: Towards A Feminist Peace Politics, Adrienne Harris and Ynestra King, eds. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. 1989.

"Disaggregating the Effect of the Business Cycle on the Distribution of Income," Economica. Vol 56:2, May 1989. p141-63.

"The Role of Part-Time Work in Women's Labor Market Choices Over Time," American Economic Review. Vol 79:1, May 1989. p295-99.

"The Effect of Medical Need and Medicaid on AFDC Participation" Journal of Human Resources. Vol 24:1, Winter 1989. p54-87.

"Poverty and Policy: The Many Faces of the Poor," in Prophetic Visions and Economic Realities: Protestants, Jews, and Catholics Confront the Bishops' Letter on the Economy, Charles R. Strain, editor. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co, 1989. p156-68.

"Women's Paid Work, Household Income, and Household Well-Being" in The American Woman 1988-89: A Status Report, Sara E. Rix, editor. New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Co, 1988. p123-61.

"The Effect of Welfare and Wage Levels on the Location Decisions of Female-Headed Households," Journal of Urban Economics. Vol 24:2, September 1988. p186-211.

"Simultaneously Modeling the Supply of Weeks and Hours of Work Among Female Household Heads," Journal of Labor Economics. Vol 6:2, April 1988. p177-204.

"Welfare Payment Levels and the Migration of Female-Headed Families," in Readings, Issues, and Questions in Public Finance, Eleanor Brown, editor. Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin, Inc, 1988.

"Part-Time Work and Wages Among Adult Women" Industrial Relations Research Association Series, Proceedings of the 39th Annual Meeting . Madison, WI: Industrial Relations Research Association, May 1987. p479-86.

"Macroeconomics, Income Distribution and Poverty," (with Alan Blinder) in Fighting Poverty: What Works and What Doesn't, Sheldon H. Danziger and Daniel H. Weinberg, eds. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1986. p180-208.

"The Effect of U.S. Defense Spending on Employment and Output," (with Emma Rothschild)  International Labour Review. Vol 124:6, December 1985. p677-97.

"The Impact of State Economic Differentials on Household Welfare and Labor Force Behavior," Journal of Public Economics. Vol 28:1, October 1985. p25-58.

"An Analysis of Worker Sectoral Choice: Public vs. Private Employment," Industrial and Labor Relations Review. Vol 38:2, January 1985. p211-24. 



"A Review of Does Training for the Disadvantaged Work?, What Employers Want, and Job Creation and Destruction." Journal of Policy Analysis and Management. Vol 16:1, Fall 1997. p311-4.

"A Review of Welfare Realities." Journal of Economic Literature. Vol 33:3,  September 1995. p1363-4.

"A Review of The Evaluation of the Washington State Family Independence Program." Industrial and Labor Relations Review. Vol 48:4, July 1995, p860-61.

"A Review of Impostors in the Temple," Journal of Economic Education." Vol 24:3,  Summer 1993. p283-6.

"A Review of Evaluating Employment and Training Programs," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management. Vol 12:3, Summer 1993. p596-8.

"A Review of Understanding the Gender Gap," Economica. Vol 59:233, February  1992. p123-4.

"A Review of Dollars and Dreams," Journal of Economic Literature. Vol 27:1, March  1990. p92-3.

"A Review of Working but Poor," Journal of Economic Literature. Vol 26:4, December 1988. p1795-6.

"A Review of Work, Health and Income Among the Elderly," Journal of Human Resources. Vol 23:3, Summer 1988. p397-411.

"A Review of Gender in the Workplace," Journal of Economic Literature. Vol 26:2,  June 1988. p728-9.



"A Helping Hand Isn't Enough." Chicago Tribune, editorial. May 29, 1997.

"Welfare Recipients Aren't the Only Ones with Plenty of Hard Work Ahead." Chicago Tribune, Sunday Perspective. January 12, 1997.

"Uncertain Days Ahead for America's Poor." Chicago Tribune, editorial. November 17, 1995.

"Unwed Mothers Need Role Models, Not Roll Backs." Wall Street Journal, editorial. March 7, 1995.

"Block Grants Ignore Feds' Welfare Role." Newsday, editorial. February 16, 1995.

"The Causes and Consequences of Rising Out-of-Wedlock Birthrates." Testimony to the Subcommittee on Human Resources, Ways and Means Committee, U.S. House of Representatives, Hearings on Welfare Reform. January 13, 1995.

"The Welfare Pit: The Climb Out Isn't Easy or Cheap." Chicago Tribune, editorial. March 23, 1994.

"The New Model Democrat: Can We Look to Clinton for a New Model of Economic Activism?" New Economy. Autumn 1993. p32-5.

"Assisting Low Income Women into the Labor Market." Testimony to the Clinton Administration Task Force on Welfare Reform. August 11, 1993.

"Current Trends in the Poverty and Income Statistics." Testimony to the Subcommittee on Human Resources, Ways and Means Committee, U.S. House of Representatives. September 10, 1992.

Growth is Not Enough: Why The Recovery of the 1980s Did So Little to Reduce Poverty. Report to the Joint Economic Committee, Congress of the United States. Washington D.C.: Joint Economic Committee Reports, September 26, 1991.

"Families Must Be our Priority." Chicago Tribune, editorial. September 30, 1991.

"Poor Kids Might Want to Go North." (joint with Maria Hanratty). Cleveland Plain Dealer, editorial. August 28, 1991.



"What Causes Public Assistance Caseloads to Grow?" September 1997

"The Changing Role of States in the Provision of Public Assistance" (with Therese J. McGuire). August 1996.



Executive Committee member, American Economic Association. 1995-97.

Chair, Committee on the Status of Women in the Economics Profession   (a subcommittee of the American Economic Association). 1993-96.

Executive Board Member, 1990-present.

Vice-President, Midwest Economic Association. 1994-95.

Faculty Research Associate, National Bureau of Economic Research, 1990-present.

Faculty Research Fellow, 1985-1990.

Faculty Affiliate, Institute for Research on Poverty, 1994-present.

Co-editor, Journal of Human Resources, 1995-97.

Board of Editors, American Economic Review, 1993-97.

Advisory Board, Journal of Public Economics, 1993-97.

Advisory Board, Journal of Economic Education, 1992-97.

Advisory Board, Feminist Economics, 1994-97.

Panel on Poverty Measurement and Family Assistance, Committee on National

Statistics, National Academy of Science. 1992-95.

Drafter, National Science Foundation's "Investing in Human Resources:

A Strategic Plan for the Human Capital Initiative." 1994.

Board of Directors, Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation. 1993- 97.

Member, Welfare Studies Committee, 1991-97.

Board of Directors, Center for Budget and Policy Priorities. 1994-97.

Advisory Committee, New Hope Project (a job training and employment program), Milwaukee, WI. 1992-97.

Advisory Committee, Job Corps Evaluation being run by Mathematica Policy Research, under contract for the Department of Labor. 1993-97.

Technical Advisory Committee, Assessing the New Federalism, a project run by The Urban Institute, 1996-97.

Advisory Committee on Poverty Research, Russell Sage Foundation. 1994- 97.

Advisory Board, W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research. 1995-97.

Board of Directors, Community Renewal Society, Chicago, IL. 1991-96.

Board of Directors, Imagine Chicago, Chicago, IL. 1994-97.

Council of Economic Advisers Homepage